通识读物(21篇)

通识读物(21篇)

   这21篇甄选自考研英语一(1995~2018)和英语二(2011~2018)中的完形填空、阅读理解、翻译和新题型的225篇文章,这些文章来源于西方知名杂志,包括:《经济学人》、《时代周刊》、《新闻周刊》、《科学美国人》、《商业周刊》、《纽约时报》、《卫报》、《自然杂志》等等。

选择这些文章有如下几个理由:

  1. 在考研复习的过程中,这些文章使我感触颇深🤔
  2. 能上西方知名杂志,还能被考研命题人选中的文章,想来必定不是一般的文章😏
  3. 😜这些文章确实是一些有趣的文章,涉及艺术、心理、演讲、人类、反智、压力、父母、习惯等方面,很值得一看🧐 看完人生可能会升华哦🤡

以下排名不分先后
  1. This Is Why You Ignore Everybody On The Subway—And Why You Should Stop(这就是你忽视地铁上每个人的原因—以及你为何要停止这么做)
  2. How to Find Time to Read(如何抽时间阅读)
  3. Are Screensa Sinister Trap or Magical Portal for Children as Young as 18 Months?(对18个月大的幼儿而言,电子产品是险恶陷阱还是神奇之门?)
  4. Hope: Reunification of Mankind(希望:人类的重新统一)
  5. A Primer for Pessimists(《悲观者的启蒙读物》 节选)
  6. Man is in danger(男人处于危险中)
  7. Gardens: An Essay on the Human Condition(园林:关于人类状况的一篇文章)
  8. Hot or Not? How We Really Rate  Our Looks(是否性感? 我们究竟该如何评价自己的外貌)
  9. Anti-intellectualism in American Middle Schools(美国中学的反智主义)
  10. How Can a Parent Help?(父母怎样帮助孩子?)
  11. How to Be an Effective Speaker(如何成为一个能打动人的演讲者)
  12. Monkeys are as sentimental as people(猴之常情)
  13. Can You Become a Creature of New Habits(你能不能变成有新习惯的人)
  14. Herd Mentality—Can peer pressure be mobilized to change behavior for the better?(群集心态—能调动同龄人的压力以更好地改变行为吗?)
  15. Criticism of the Fast-fashion Industry(对快速时尚产业的批评)
  16. Parenthood Sucks—or Does It?(做父母很糟糕还是?)
  17. Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age(举止快乐,与年龄无关)
  18. In Favor of a Gap Year(支持间隔年)
  19. Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress(性别不平等:压力之下的女性)
  20. Ambition(雄心)
  21. The Art of Unhappiness(《悲情艺术》节选)

01.

This Is Why You Ignore Everybody On The Subway -- And Why You Should Stop

这就是你忽视地铁上每个人的原因——以及你为何要停止这么做

   In our contemporary culture, the prospect of communicating with-or even looking at-a stranger is virtually unbearable Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones, even without a  signal underground.

   在我们的当代文化中,想到与一个陌生人交谈,甚至是看一眼,都是难以忍受的。我们周围的每个人似乎都通过摆弄自己手机的做法显示出对这一观点的赞同,即使是在一点信号也没有的地铁上。

   It's a sad reality-our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings-because there's Much to be gained from talking to the stranger standing by you.  But you wouldn't know it, plugged into your phone. his universal armor sends the message: "Please don't approach me."

   这是一个令人悲伤的现实——我们希望避免与其他人的互动——因为与你身边的陌生人谈话可以让你获益良多。但是如果总是翻看手机,你就不会知道这一点。这种普遍存在的自我保护行为传递出这样的信息:“请别靠近我。”

   What is it that makes us feel we need to hide behind our screens?

   是什么让我们感到需要躲在手机屏幕后面呢?

   One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach We fear rejection, or that our innocent social advances will be misinterpreted as"creep", We fear we'II be judged We fear we'II be disruptive.

   一种答案是“害怕”,执行心理教练乔•沃特曼这么认为。我们害怕遭到拒绝,或者害怕我们毫无恶意的社交努力被误解成是“诡异的”。我们害怕别人对我们评头论足,我们害怕自己引起骚乱。

   Strangers are inherently  unfamiliar to us, so we are more likely to feel anxious when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances To avoid this anxiety,  we turn to our phones". Phones become our security blanke, "Wortmann says."They are our happy glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more dangerous ."

   对于我们来说,陌生人原本就不熟悉,所以我们与陌生人交流的时候比与朋友和熟人交流更有可能感到焦虑不安。为了避免这种焦虑,我们求助于我们的手机。沃特曼说:“手机成了我们的保护伞。它们是我们幸福的保护屏障,让我们免于接触那些我们认为更加危险的事物。”

   But once we rip off the bandaid, tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up, it doesn't hurt so bad.  In one 2011 experiment, behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a Conversation. They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow passengers. "When Dr.Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to predict how they would feel after talking to a stranger,  the commuters thought their ride would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they went through  with the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed."

   但是,一旦我们解开这层(自我保护的)绷带,将我们的智能手机收进口袋里,抬头看看周围,就会发现对自己没什么害处。在2011年的一项实验中,行为科学家尼古拉斯•埃普利和朱莉安娜•施罗德让通勤乘客做一件不可思议的事——开启一段谈话。他们让芝加哥乘坐火车的通勤乘客与身边的乘客说话。《纽约时报》总结说:“当埃普利博士和施罗德女士请在同一火车站的其他人预测自己与陌生人交谈之后的感受时,这些乘客认为独自乘车,旅途会更愉快。”尽管参与者们原本没有期待会有积极的体验,但是当他们完成实验后,“没有一个人称自己感到尴尬。”

   In fact, these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense,since human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that simple: Talking to strangers can make you feel connected.

   事实上,据说与那些没有交流的旅途相比,这些伴有交流的通勤更愉快,这具有绝对的意义,因为人类在社会联系中发展壮大。这很简单:与陌生人交谈让你感到自己与别人是有联系的。

来源:2015 英语二 完形填空

02.

How to Find Time to Read

如何抽时间阅读

   That everyone’s too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There’s never any time to read.

   如今人人都抱怨自己很忙,这已经是人们口中的陈词滥调了。但有一个抱怨听起来尤为让人伤感:一直没时间阅读。

   What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient. The web’s full of articles offering tips on making time to read: “Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn’t work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you’re so exhausted that a challenging book’s the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption”. Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.

   而让这个问题更糟糕的是,那些常见的时间管理技巧似乎并不足以改变这一问题。网上充斥着各种教你如何腾出时间来阅读的攻略:诸如“别看电视”或者“随时带本书在身边”。但在我看来,使用这些方法来腾出个30分钟左右的阅读时间是不管用的。因为当你坐下来阅读的时候,脑海里各种关于工作的思绪就开始翻腾,或是你太疲劳了以致于你最不想做的就是读一本吃力的书。小说家兼批评家蒂姆·帕克斯写道:“当代人的心理极其倾向于交流…并不仅仅是说你被打扰了,而是你实际上很容易被打扰。深度阅读需要的不仅仅是时间,而是一种特别的时间,它不是仅仅通过提高效率就能获得的。

   In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you’ll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes)as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them”. No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.

   实际上,“提高效率”只是解决没有时间阅读这一问题的一方面。如果能把时间看做是一种可被最大化利用的资源,那就意味着你能把它当做工具来用,并且只有在你时刻都向特定目标迈进的时候,你才认为每一刻时间都是用有所值的。相反,深度阅读取决于你愿意承担无效率、无目标地阅读所带来的后果,这种阅读后果甚至是浪费时间。如果你能把阅读列为你每天必做事项之一,那么你就能做到专一于目标的阅读—有时这是有效果的,但它并不是最让人感到满足的阅读方式。加里·埃伯利在他的《神圣的时间》一书中写道:“我们的未来就像空瓶子一样,在一条不可阻挡且似乎无止尽的传送带上流转,这让我们感到一种压力,那就是不同大小的瓶子(几天、几小时、几分钟)在传送带上经过的时候要把它们都装满,因为瓶子经过而没有被装满,我们就浪费了这些瓶子。”没有哪种心态能比沉浸书海这种感觉更好。

   So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time’s flow” into “soul time”. You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you’re “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.

   那么哪种方法能奏效呢?那就是安排定期的阅读时间,这个答案或许让人感到惊讶。你会觉得这种方式会助推注重效率的心理,但埃伯利指出,事实上这种惯例性行为有助于我们“走出时间在流逝”这样的心理并进入“心灵时间”。通过只阅读纸质书籍,或是在只有阅读这种功能的阅读器上阅读,就能减少让你分心的事情。“随时带本书在身边”这种方式也能奏效,前提是在足够多的时间里你都沉浸在阅读中,从而让阅读成为你的常态,只是在你需要处理事务的时候才把注意力从书上暂时移开,之后再次专心阅读。在你的阅读状态进入佳境的某天,你就不会再有“腾出时间来阅读”这种感觉,而是你一直在阅读,腾出时间来做其他事。

来源:2016 英语二 Text 3

03.

Are Screensa Sinister Trap or Magical Portal for Children as Young as 18 Months?

对18个月大的幼儿而言,电子产品是险恶陷阱还是神奇之门?

   With so much focus on children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. "Tech is designed to really suck on you in," says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, "and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine. "

   家长过多地关注儿童使用电子产品时的情况,却很容易忘记自己。詹妮·拉德斯基在其关于数字化娱乐的研究里提到:“科技的初衷在于让人沉其中,而数字产品存在的意义就是让人们的参与度最大化。人们很难不参与其中,使数字产品的影响大量渗透进每家的日常生活之中。”

   Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.

   通过让成对的母子进行食品检测的小练习,拉德斯基研究了他们吃饭时使用手机和平板电脑的情况。她发现在此期间,使用电子产品的妈妈主动与自己孩子进行语言和非语言交流的可能性分别减少了20%和39%。在一次分别观察中,她看到手机甚至成为造成家庭关系紧张的根源。父母在浏览电子邮件的同时,孩子正在努力吸引他们的注意。

   Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device—it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. "Parents don’t have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need," says Radesky.

   婴幼儿习惯通过观察父母的面部表情去试图了解这个世界,如果他们看到的是毫无表情和反应的一张脸(当父母沉浸在电子设备之中时经常如此),孩子们会因此感到非常不安。拉德斯基引用了发展心理学家埃德·特洛尼克在20世纪70年代设计的“静止脸实验”。“这个实验中,特洛尼克让一位先和自己的孩“行正常互动,然后开始让妈妈摆出一副冷冰冰的表情,不让孩子看到任何交流反馈。孩子开始变得越来越难过,因为她想尽力去引起妈妈的注意。拉德斯基说:“父母不需要在任何时候都关注和教育孩子,但应该找一个平衡点,他们需要对孩子情感需求的语言或非语言表达保持敏感并有所反馈。”

   On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children: “It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.

   另一方面,特洛尼克自己所关心的是,对孩子使用电子产品的担忧源于“父母要一直与孩子保持互动的强迫性观念"“这种观念以些许虚幻的、白人中上层的意识形态为基石出,这种意识形态认为如果你不能让孩子接触30000个词,你就没有尽到做父母的责任。” 特洛尼克认为不能仅仅因为孩子没有从电子产品上学到东西,就说电子产品毫无用处——尤其是电子产品能让父母有时间洗个澡、做做家务或离开孩子休息片刻的情况下。他谈到,父母可以从使用电子产品中受益良多,他们可以用电子产品和朋友聊天,或者完成一些工作。这可以让父母感到更快乐,也可以让他们在闲暇时能与孩子有更多相处的机会。

来源:2017 英语二 Text 2

04.

Hope: Reunification of Mankind

希望:人类的重新统一

   Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has resulted in robotics — the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.

   从人类最初有了智慧至今,人们一直在设计日益巧妙的工具来处理那些危险的、枯燥的、繁重的或者只是一般肮脏的工作。这种不得已的行为导致了机器人科学的产生——一门将人类的能力赋予机器的科学。如果科学家们还没有在机械上实现科幻小说的幻想,那么他们也已经很接近这个目标了。

   As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robo-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy — far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.

   由此引起的结果是,现代世界已经日益充斥着智能的装置,虽然我们几乎都注意不到他们,但他们的普遍存在却节省了许多人类劳力。我们的工厂里轰鸣着机器人生产线的节奏;我们的金融服务完成于自动柜员机旁,完成业务后,它们还会机械地、有礼貌地感谢我们;我们的地铁车辆由不知疲倦的机器人驾驶。由于电子和微观机械仪器的不断缩小,现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米的脑部和骨髓手术,其精确性远远超过熟练的医生用他们的双手所能达到的水平。

   But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves — goals that pose a real challenge. "While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error," says Dave Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA, "we can't yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world."

   但是如果机器人要进入节省劳力的下一个阶段,他们必须能够在更少的人工监控下运行,并且至少能够独立地做一些决定。这些目标给我们提出了一个真正的挑战。“虽然我们知道如何让机器人去纠正一个特定的错误,”NASA的一个机器人项目经理戴维•拉维里说,“我们仍然不能赋予机器人以足够的‘常识’,使它们能够与动态的世界进行可靠的交流。”

   Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results. Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.

   实际上对真正的人工智能的追求已经产生了各种各样的效果。虽然一开始在20世纪60年代和70年代有过一段乐观的时期——那时候仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使他们在2010年能够模仿人类大脑的活动——但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百年。

   What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented — and human perception far more complicated — than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it.

   在试图建造思维模型的过程中,研究人员发现,人类大脑中的近1000亿个神经细胞要比以前想像的更聪明,人类的感觉器官也比以前想像的更复杂。他们建造的机器人在严格控制的工厂环境里,能够在仪表盘上识别毫米以下的误差。但是人的大脑能够扫描一个快速变化的场景,迅速排除98%的不相干的物体,立即聚焦于森林中婉蜒道路旁的一只猴子,或者人群中的一张可疑的脸。地球上最先进的计算机系统也不能仿效这种能力,并且神经学科学家仍然不知道我们是怎样做到这一点的。

来源:2002 英语一 Text 2

05.

A Primer for Pessimists

《悲观者的启蒙读物》 节选

   Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality.” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar, realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.

   大多数人愿意把乐观定义为无尽的欢乐,就像一只总是装着半杯水的杯子。但那是一种绝不会为积极心理学家所推荐的虚假快乐。哈佛大学的Tal Ben-Shahar教授说,“健康的乐观主义,意味着要处于现实之中。”在Ben-Shahar看来,现实的乐观主义者,会尽最大努力做好一件事,而不是相信每件事都会有最好的结果。

   Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.

   Ben-Shahar 会进行三种乐观方面的练习。比如说,当他进行了一次糟糕的演讲,感到心情郁闷的时候,他会告诉自己这是人之常情。他会提醒自己:并不是每一次演讲都可以获得诺贝尔获,总会有一些演讲比其它演讲效果差。接着是重塑,他分析了这个效果不好的演讲,并且从那些起作用和不起作用的演讲中吸取教训为将来做准备。最后,需要有这样一种观点,那就是承认,在广阔的生命当中,一次演讲根本算不上什么。

来源:2014 英语二 翻译

06.

Man is in danger

男人处于危险中

   Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby (particularly a boy baby) surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram
too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more agent of evolution has gone.

   做男人总是充满危险,出生时男女比例大约是105:100,但到了成熟期,这一比例几乎持平,而在70岁的老人中女性是男性的两倍,但是男性死亡率普遍偏高这种情况正在改变,现在男婴存活率几乎同女婴一样高。这就意味着男孩到了寻找伴侣的关键年龄将首次出现男孩过剩现象。更重要的是,又一次自然选择的机会不复存在了。50年前,婴儿(尤其是男婴)存活的机会取决于体重,过轻或过重几乎意味着必死无疑。今日体重几乎不起什么作用,因为大部分差异是由基因引起的,又一个进化的因素消失了。

   There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Few people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women has 15 children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring. Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today — everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring — means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribes.

   进化自杀还有另一种方法:存活,但少生孩子。现在没有几个人像过去那样具有旺盛的生育力。除了在一些宗教社区之外,没有几名妇女有15个孩子。当今婴儿出生的数量同死亡年龄一样已趋于平均化,我们多数人的子女数量大致相同。人与人之间的差异和利用差异进行自然选择的机会再一次减少。印度可以说明正在发生的一切。这个国家给大城市里的少数人提供财富,而给其余的各部落民族以贫困。今天这种极其显著的平均化——每个人的生存机会和子女数量都相同——意味着与部落相比较,自然选择在印度中、上层已经失去了80%的效力。

   For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the past 100,000 years — even the past 100 years — our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution: they "look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension." No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.

   对我们来说,这意味着进化已经结束;生物学上的乌托邦已经降临。奇怪的是,这一过程几乎丝毫没有牵涉到身体上的变化,没有其他物种充斥着自然中如此多的空间。但在过去的10万年——甚至过去的100年中,我们的生活发生了变化,但我们的身体却没变。我们没有进化。因为机器和社会替我们办了这一切。达尔文有一句话描述那些对进化一无所知的人,他们“看有机的生命如同野人看船,好像看某种完全不能理解的东西”。毫无疑问,我们将记住20世纪的生活方式,尽管对其丑陋之处不得其解,但是,不管我们的子孙后代对我们离乌托邦的理想境界还差多远感到有多么惊讶,他们的样子会同我们差不了多少。

来源:2000 英语一 Text 2

07.

Gardens: An Essay on the Human Condition

园林:关于人类状况的一篇文章

   It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak os various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

   据推断,花园的源于创造它的人的基本需求,即对创造性表达的需求。毫无疑问,花园证明了人类有一种不可思议的创造,表达,改变和美化的需求,同时也证明自我表达是人类的基本需求。然而,看着无家可归者绘制出的花园图片时,人们会突然想到,尽管这些花园风格多样,它们都显示了人类除了装饰和创造性表达之外的其他各种基本诉求。

   One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.  This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the foemer becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.

   其中一项需求就是在喧闹中创造一丝平静,借用T.S.艾略特的话来说就是:创造一个闹中求静的世界,无论地方是多么简陋不堪,寻求一片静谧圣土是人类特有的需求,而不仅仅是一个避难栖息之地,那是动物的需求。这种差异是如此之大,以至于动物性的需求越少,人性的需求就越大,正如这些难以名状的花园一样。平静是一种心态,构建于人与环境间的关系,无家可归者描绘的花园实质上是无所依附的,这些花园把一种形式引入城市环境中,而这样的城市环境中,形式要么根本不存在, 要么就不是以这种明显的方式存在。

   Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.  In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life-assuming uncanny representational forms.

   花园好像还反映了或者说源于另一种需求,它是人类固有的,我们几乎未曾意识到它的存在。当我们没有了绿色,失去各色植物和种种树木,我们大多数人会深陷于精神萎靡的状态,并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因,直到某天我们发现自己置身花园中,感到如魔法般烦闷尽消。纽约大部分的无所依附的花园中实际都不适合栽种植物,即便如此,花园的布局常看起来给人一种精心雕琢安排修饰的感觉:物品摆放,色彩搭配,水塘位置,花团锦簇,绿意融融,乃至饱食餍足的动物们。各种奇特的元素呈现于此,从根本上讲,它们都是代表了自然界。正是对自然的这种或隐晦含蓄或清晰直白的关联,充分证明了用“花园”一词来描述这些人造建筑是合乎情理的,即使是从毫无拘泥的意义来讲的。在他们身上我们可以看到人们热爱生命的天性(即渴望与人类外其它生物接触的本能)呈现出一种奇异的具象表现形式。

来源:2013 英语一 翻译

08.

Hot or Not? How We Really Rate Our Looks

是否性感? 我们究竟该如何评价自己的外貌

   An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.

   《科学美国人》中的一篇文章指出:实证研究表明,事实上,你总是认为自己比真正的自己要漂亮。让自我感觉良好对我们来说是一种根深蒂固的需要。因此,我们很自然的会采用一些自我增强(心理术语)的策略来达到这一目标。社会心理学家已经对"超过平均效应"或者"虚幻的优越感"(的现象)积累了大量的研究。结果显示,举例来说,70%的人认为自己的领导水准是高于平均水平的,体现在驾驶(各个年龄段和性别)水平上,这个数字达到了93%,而更有85%的人觉得自己的交际能力在平均水平之上——都是听起来不可能的数据统计。

   We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.

   我们会美化自己的记忆,并总是自我肯定。对批评我们逐渐变得急于防护,并将负面刻板的印象强加于别人来维护我们自己的自尊。我们招摇过市并自以为我们是非常受欢迎的角色。

   Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image—which must did—they genuinely believed it was really how they looked.

   心理学家和行为科学家尼古拉斯·埃普利监测到了一个关于自我增强和吸引力的关键性研究。除了单纯让人们对自己的长相进行心理排序,尼古拉斯普利准备了一系列照片,其中包括了一些被多多少少处理得更加美观的照片,然后他让受验者从一组自己的照片中辨识出哪个是原来的版本。"视觉识别",据其研究成果介绍,是"一个自动的心理过程,是迅速而直接地发生的,很少或者没有明显的熟思意识。"在实验中,如果受验者迅速选择了一个虚假的美化图像——事实上很多人都这么做了——那么说明他们真诚地相信他们本来就是那个样子的。

   Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing.

   除此之外,埃普利在实验结果中没有发现显着的性别差异。同样,也没有任何证据表明那些自我增强感最强的人(也就是,会选择修改后最美观的图片的人)这样做是为了弥补其深深的不安全感。事实上,那些选择更有吸引力图片的人与那些被标识为具有更高自尊心的人直接相关。"我并不认为我们得到的这个结论能证明个人妄想,"埃普利说,"这只是人们自我感觉良好的一个简单反应。"如果你很沮丧,你就不会有自我增强的偏向。

   Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study, it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally—on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore, is a self-enhancer’s paradise, where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit, style, beauty, intellect and lifestyle. “It’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,” says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university, “but they portray an idealized version of themselves.”

   知道了埃普利的研究结果,也就不难理解为什么那么多人发自内心地讨厌自己的照片——到某种程度,他们根本并不认为图片里的人就是他们自己。因此,脸书就是一个实现"自我增强"的天堂。在Facebook上,人们可以只分享虚伪而最美的照片,他们智慧、美丽、天分和生活方式的精华在这里得到了完美的展现。"这并不是说他们展现的都是不诚实的资料,"威斯康星·麦迪逊大学的卡特琳娜·托马说,"他们塑造了一个理想化版本的自己。"

来源:2014 英语二 Text 2

09.

Anti-intellectualism in American Middle Schools

美国中学的反智主义

 Americans today don't place a very high value on intellect. Our heroes are athletes, entertainers, and entrepreneurs, not scholars. Even our schools are where we send our children to get a practical education - not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Symptoms of pervasive anti-intellectualism in our schools aren't difficult to find.

   今天的美国人不很看重才学。我们的英雄不是学者而是运动员、演艺圈名星和企业家。即使是我们的学校也只是我们送孩子去接受实用教育的地方,而不是让他们为了知识而去追求学问。学校里不难发现反智主义的普遍表现。

   "Schools have always been in a society where practical is more important than intellectual," says education writer Diane Ravitch. "Schools could be a counterbalance." Razitch's latest bock, Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms, traces the roots of anti-intellectualism in our schools, concluding they are anything but a counterbalance to the American distaste for intellectual pursuits.

   教育学作家戴安•莱维西说:“学校始终处于实用重于才学的社会之中。”“学校本来可能是一种抵消的力量。”莱维西最新著作《落后:一个世纪的失败学校改革》探索学校里反智主义倾向的根源,书中的结论是:美国学校绝没有抵制美国人对才学追求的厌恶。

   But they could and should be. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy. Continuing along this path, says writer Earl Shorris, "We will become a second-rate country. We will have a less civil society."

   但学校是能够并应该做到这一点的。鼓励孩子们排斥精神生活使得他们极易被利用和控制。如果不能批判地思考、不能捍卫自己的思想、不能理解他人的思想,他们就不能充分地参与我们的民主。作家厄尔•绍利斯说,沿着这条路线发展下去,“我们将变为二流国家,我们的社会将不再那么文明。”

   "Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege," writes historian and professor Richard Hofstadter in Anti-Intellectualism in American life, a Pulitzer Prize winning book on the roots of anti-intellectualism in US politics, religion, and education. From the beginning of our history, says Hofstadter, our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of elitism. Practicality, common sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble qualities than anything you could learn from a book.

   历史学家兼教授理查德•霍夫斯塔特在《美国生活中的反智主义》中写道:“才学被看作一种权利或特权而遭厌恶。”该书探讨美国政治、宗教和教育中的反智主义的根源,曾获普利策奖。霍夫斯塔特说:自我们的历史之初,我们对民主化和大众化的渴望就驱使我们排斥任何带有精英优越论味道的东西。实用性、常识以及与生俱有的智力这些素质一直被视作比可以从书本里学得的任何东西都高贵。

   Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and rigorous book learning put unnatural restraints on children: "We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing." Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn exemplified American anti-intellectualism. Its hero avoids being civilized — going to school and learning to read — so he can preserve his innate goodness.

   拉尔夫•瓦尔多•爱默生和其他一些先验主义哲学家认为学校教育和严格的书本学习限制了孩子们的天性。“我们被关在中小学和大学的朗诵室里十年或十五年,最后出来满肚子墨水,却啥都不懂。”马克•吐温的小说《哈克贝利•芬》即是美国反智主义的例证。该书的主人公逃避教化——不上学和不学习读书写字——因此他才得以保住善良的天性。

   Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly admire. Intellect is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of the mind. Intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, re-order, and adjust, while intellect examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes, criticizes and imagines.

   按照霍夫斯塔特的观点,才学不同于天生的智力,它是一种我们不太情愿去赞赏的品质。才学是精神世界中的批评、创造和沉思的一面。智力寻求的是理解、运用、整合和调节,而才学是审视、思考、探究、形成理论、批判和想象。

   School remains a place where intellect is mistrusted. Hofstadter says our country's educational system is in the grips of people who "joyfully and militantly proclaim their hostility to intellect and their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual promise."

   学校仍然是一个才智受到怀疑的地方。斯坦特说我们国家的教育体制掌握在这样一群人的手中,“他们沾沾自喜、霸气十足地公然宣称对才智的敌意,且迫不及待地表示出对那些在才智上没有前途的孩子们的认同。”

来源:2004 英语一 Text 4

10.

How Can a Parent Help?

父母怎样帮助孩子?

   Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in early adulthood for their kids. Even if a job's starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult's need for rapid content, the transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move. Here are a few measures, drawn from my book Ready or Not, Here Life Comes, that parents can take to prevent what I call “work-life unreadiness.”

   家长们可以做很多事来确保自己的孩子顺利进入成年初期。虽然工作起薪看起来很低,难以满足一个即将成年孩子(想要)快速得到满足的需求,但是如果这个准成年人已经做好了开始转变的准备,那么他在从学校向职场的过渡中遭遇的挫折也许会少些。以下的几种方法,节选自我撰写的《不管你是否做好准备,人生就在眼前》一书。家长们可以借鉴,以避免我所说的“对工作和生活准备不足"的情况发生:

   You can start this process when they are 11 or 12. Periodically review their emerging strengths and weaknesses with them and work together on any shortcomings, like difficulty in communicating well or collaborating. Also, identify the kinds of interests they keep coming back to, as these offer clues to the careers that will fit them best.

   你可以在孩子十一二岁时开始这个过程。定期和孩子一起反思他们表现出来的优缺点,一起努力克服这些缺点,比如在与人有效交流或合作方面的困难。另外,发现孩子一直以来的兴趣所在,因为这些能够提供线索来寻找最适合他们的职业。

   Kids need a range of authentic role models - as opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunted athletes. Have regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how they got where they are. Discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage your kids to form some ideas about their own future. When asked what they want to do, they should be discouraged from saying “I have no idea.” They can change their minds 200 times, but having only a foggy view of the future is of little good.

   孩子们需要一些真实的榜样——不是他们小圈子里的人,也不是明星或被大肆吹嘘的运动员。经常在就餐时与孩子谈论家庭成员所认识的人以及他们是如何取得现在的成就的。与孩子谈论一下你自己职业生涯中的乐趣以及存在的问题,并鼓励他为自己的未来做一些打算。当问及他们将来想做什么的时候,应该阻止他们回答说“我不知道”。他们可以不断地改变想法,但是对未来仅有模糊的构想可不怎么好。

   Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learn; parents should be responsible for teaching them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job. Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratification and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities.

   教师负责教孩子如何学习,家长应该负责教他们如何工作。给他们布置一些家务活,并确保按时完成家庭作业。鼓励青少年做兼职。孩子需要大量练习延迟享受以及运用有效的组织技能,比如管理时间和设置目标。

   Playing video games encourages immediate content. And hours of watching TV shows with canned laughter only teaches kids to process information in a passive way. At the same time, listening through earphones to the same monotonous beats for long stretches encourages kids to stay inside their bubble instead of pursuing other endeavors. All these activities can prevent the growth of important communication and thinking skills and make it difficult for kids to develop the kind of sustained concentration they will need for most jobs.

   玩电子游戏会助长即时满足感,长时间看带有预录笑声的电视节目只会教孩子被动地处理信息,同时,长时间戴耳机听单调的音乐节奏将导致孩子沉浸在自己的世界里而不去追求其他事情。所有这些动都可能防碍重要的交流和思考技能的发展,并使孩子很难培养大多数工作所需要的持续注意力。

   They should know how to deal with setbacks, stresses and feelings of inadequacy. They should also learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically. Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to everyday life situations.

   他们应该知道如何应对挫折、压力和无法胜任工作之感。他们也应该学会如何解决问题和化解冲突,学会集思广益的方法和批判性地思考。家庭讨论可以帮助孩子锻炼这些能力并帮助他们把这些能应用到日常的生活情景中。

   What about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling and wandering aimlessly through early adulthood? Parents still have a major role to play, but now it is more delicate. They have to be careful not to come across as disappointed in their child. They should exhibit strong interest and respect for whatever currently interests their fledging adult (as naive or ill conceived as it may seem) while becoming a partner in exploring options for the future. Most of all, these new adults must feel that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them.

   那些已经长大但在成年初期似乎苦苦挣扎并感到无所适从的孩子该怎么办呢?家长依旧需要扮重要角色,只不过此时会更加微妙。他们必须小心,避免表现出对孩子感到失望。不管他们羽翼刚刚满的(看似幼稚或考虑欠周全的)孩子目前的兴趣是什么,家长都应该对此表现出强烈的兴趣与尊重,时要成为孩子的伙伴,与之共同探索未来的选择。最重要的是,这些刚刚成年的孩子必须感受到赏识们的家人的尊重和支持。

来源:2007 英语一 新题型

11.

How to Be an Effective Speaker

如何成为一个能打动人的演讲者

   If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.

   如果你想在谈话中用幽默来使人发笑,你就必须知道如何识别共同的经历和共同的问题。你的幽默必须与听众有关,能够向他们显示你是他们的一员,或者你了解他们的情况,同情他们的观点。根据与你谈话的不同对象,问题也有所不同。如果你在和一群经理谈话,你就可以评论他们秘书的工作方法紊乱;相反,如果你在和一群秘书谈话,你就可以评论她们老板的工作方法紊乱。

   Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God," came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor."

   下面举一个例子,它是我在一个护士大会上听到的。这个故事效果很好,因为听众对医生都有同样的看法。一个人到了天堂,由圣彼得带着他参观。他看到了豪华的住宅、美丽的花园、晴朗的天气等等。所有人都很安静、礼貌和友善,然而当这位新来的人在排队等候午餐时,突然被一位穿白大褂的人推到一旁。只见这人挤到了队伍的前头,抓起他的食物,噔噔地旁若无人地走到一张餐桌旁。“这是谁啊?”新来的人问圣彼得。“哦,那是上帝,”他回答说,“但有时也认为自己是一名医生。”

   If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.

   如果你是你谈话对象集体中的一员,你就能够了解你们所共有的经历和问题,你就可对餐厅极难吃的食物或者总裁在选择领带方面差劲的品味进行评头论足。而对于其他听众,你就不能试图贸然地讲这种幽默,因为他们也许不喜欢外人对他们的餐厅或总裁有如此微词。如果你选择去评论邮局或电话局这样的替罪羊,那你就会很安全。

   If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.

   如果你在幽默时感到很别扭,你应该进行练习使它变得更自然。包括一些很随便的、看上去是即兴的话,你可以用轻松的、不做作的方式把它们说出来。常常是你说话的方式使听众发笑,因此说慢一些,并且记住扬扬眉毛或者做出一种不相信的表情都会向人们显示你正在说笑话。

   Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.

   留意幽默,它常常是在出其不意的时候出现。它可以是一句常言的歪曲如“你要是一开始不成功,就放弃”,或者是玩弄语言和情景。留意夸张和打折扣的话。考虑一下你的谈话,选出一些词汇和句子,颠倒它们的秩序,并注入一些幽默。

来源:2002 英语一 Text 1

12.

Monkeys are as sentimental as people

猴之常情

   Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.

   人人都爱丰厚加薪。然而假如你得知一位同事加薪比你更丰厚,那你的快乐可能会骤然消失。事实上,如果他还有懒散的名声,那你甚至可能会变得震怒。这样的行为被认为是“人之常情",其潜在假设是其他动物不具有这种高度发达的委屈意识。但由佐治亚州亚特兰大市埃默里大学的萨拉·布鲁斯南和弗兰斯·德·瓦尔完成的一项刚刚发表于《自然》上的研究表明,这也是“猴之常情"。

   The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males.

   研究者们研究了雌性棕色卷尾猴的习性。这些猴子看起来很可爱。它们是生性温和,乐于合作的动物,且愿意分享食物。最重要的是,像人类女性一样,它们往往比雄性更注重“物品与服务"的价值。

   Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de Waal's study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

   这些特征使它们成为布鲁斯南博士和德.瓦尔博士研究的理想对象。研究人员花费了两年的时间教猴子用代币换取食物。通常情况下,猴子很乐意用石块换取黄瓜片。然而,当两只猴子被安置在隔开但相邻的房间里,以便它们能够看到彼此用石块换取的东西时,它们的行为就会变得明显不同了。

   In the world of capuchins, grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.

   在卷尾猴的世界里,葡萄是奢侈品(且比黄瓜要受欢迎得多)。所以当一只猴子用一个代币换到一顆葡萄时,第二只猴子就不愿意用自己的代币只换取一片黄瓜了。如果一只猴子根本无需用代币作为交换就得到一颗葡萄,那么另一只猴子就会把代币砸向研究人员或者扔出房间外,或者拒绝接受那片黄瓜。事实上,只要在另一个房间出现了葡萄(根本没有猴子吃它),就足以引起雌性卷尾猴的愤恨了。

   The researchers suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species. Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

   研究人员指出,正如人类一样,卷尾猴也受到社会情感的支配。在野外,它们是协作、群居的物种。只有当每只猴子都感到自己没有被欺骗时,这种协作才可能稳定。义愤感似乎不只是人类的专利。拒绝一份较少的酬劳可以完全将这些情绪十分明确地传达给组内其他成员。但是这种公平感是从卷尾猴和人类身上各自演化而来,还是来源于三千五百万年以前他们共同的祖先,至今仍是个有待回答的问题。

来源:2005 英语一 Text 1

13.

Can You Become a Creature of New Habits

你能不能变成有新习惯的人

   Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative connotation.

   习惯是个奇特的东西。我们机械地按其行事:将大脑设定为自动驾驶模式,放松地进入熟悉的常规所带来的无意识舒适状态。威廉·华兹华斯在19世纪曾说过:“不是选择,而是习惯支配着那些不善思考的人们。”在不断变化的21世纪,甚至“习惯”这个词本身都带有负面含义。

   So it seems antithetical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel synaptic paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks.

   因此,将习惯同创造力和创新在同一语境下讨论似乎矛盾。但脑研究人员发现,当我们有意识地培养新习惯时,我们会在大脑中生成相应的(神经)通路,甚至生成全新的脑细胞,(这些新的通路和脑细胞)能使我们的思路跳上新的、创新的轨道。

   Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit, we can instead direct our own change by consiciously developing new habits.In fact, the more new things we try-the more we step outside our comfort zone - the more inherently creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives.

   不要轻易将自己视为无法改变的凭习惯行事的生物,相反,我们可以通过有意识地培养新习惯来引导自己的改变。事实上,我们尝试的新事物越多——走出自身舒适区越多——我们就会变得越具有内在的创造力,无论是在职场上还是在私人生活中均是如此。

   But don't bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts of procedure are worn into the hippocampus, they're there to stay. Instead, the new habits we deliberately ingrain into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads.

   但是,不必费力试图根除旧习惯。一旦那些常规做法的“辙痕"被印入大脑,它们则将长久存在。相反,我们刻意培养的新习惯会在大脑中生成相似的通路,它们可以绕开那些旧的线路。

  “The first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder,” says Dawna Markova, author of “The Open Mind” and an executive change consultant for Professional Thinking Partners. “But we are taught instead to ‘decide,' just as our president calls himself ‘the Decider.' ” She adds, however, that “to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one. A good innovational thinker is always exploring the many other possibilities.”

   《开放的思维》一书作者道娜.马尔科娃说:“创新所需的首要条件是强烈的好奇心。但我们却被教导去‘做决定’,正如我们的总统称自己是‘决策者’一样”。她又补充道,然而,“做决定是只保留一种可能而将其他可能全部扼杀。(但是,)一个出色的创新型思考者却总在探寻着其他多种可能性。”

   All of us work through problems in ways of which we're unaware, she says. Researchers in the late 1960 covered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. At puberty, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.

   她说,我们都以我们意识不到的方式来解决问题。20世纪60年代晚期的研究者们发现,人生来具有以四种基本方式应对挑战的能力:分析地、按流程地、联系地(或协作地)、创新地(应对挑战)。然而,在青春期结束时,大脑关闭了其中一半能力,只保留了那些在生命最初大约十年中似乎最有价值的思维方式。

   The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. “This breaks the major rule in the American belief system — that anyone can do anything,” explains M. J. Ryan, author of the 2006 book “This Year I Will...” and Ms. Markova's business partner. “That's a lie that we have perpetuated, and it fosters commonness. Knowing what you're good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.” This is where developing new habits comes in.

   当前对标准化测试的重视就是强调分析和流程,这意味着我们很少有人会本能地使用创新和协作的思维方式。“这打破了美国信仰体系中的主要准则一一任何人可以做任何事,”2006年出版的《今年我打算...》一书的作者、马尔科娃女士的商业伙伴赖安说道。“这个准则是我们一直以来维系的一个谎言,它助长了平庸。了解你所擅长的并多加练习才能造就辉煌。”这正是培养新习惯的意义所在。

来源:2009 英语一 Text 1

14.

Herd Mentality
Can peer pressure be mobilized to change behavior for the better?

群集心态
能调动同龄人的压力以更好地改变行为吗?

   Come on -Everybody's doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word.

   快来吧——大家都在这样做呢。这句半邀请半强迫的耳语是我们大多数人在听到“同侪压力”一词时会想到的。它通常引发坏事——酗酒、吸毒以及随意性行为。但蒂娜.罗森伯格在其新作《加入俱乐部》中声称,通过她所谓的“社会治疗",同侪压力也可以成为一种积极的力量。在“社会治疗”中,组织机构和官员们利用群体互动的力量来帮助个人改善生活,甚至可能改进整个世界。

   Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers.

   普利策奖得主罗森伯格列举许多正在进行中的“社会治疗"实例:在南卡罗莱纳州,一项由州政府资助的名为“怒对烟雾”的反吸烟活动意在让吸烟成为落伍行为。在南非,一场名为“珍爱生命"的HIV预防倡议活动招募年轻人在其同龄人中推行安全性行为。

   The idea seems promising,and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology.” Dare to be different, please don't smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.

   这一想法似乎很有前景,罗森伯格也确实是一位有洞察力的观察家。她对许多公共健康运动缺陷的评论十分准确:它们没能调动起同侪压力以促进健康习惯的生成,且它们证实了对心理的严重错误理解。“敢于与众不同,请勿吸烟!"一项旨在控制青少年吸烟的大幅广告牌宣传活动这样请求道——而这些青少年实际上只是想要融入团体。罗森伯格颇有说服力地论证指出,公共健康运动倡导者应向广告人学习,他们是如此谙熟同侪压力的运用。

   But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it's presented here is that it doesn't work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed.

   但就社会治疗的总体效力而言,罗森伯格就没那么有说服力了。《加入俱乐部》一书充斥着太多无关细节,却未能充分探究那些促就同侪压力如此强大的社会和生物因素。正如书中所揭示的那样,社会治疗最明显的缺陷是它不能长期运转良好。政府资助一削减,“怒对烟雾”运动就失效。证实“珍爱生命”活动产生持久变化的证据有限而且有好有坏。

   There's no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.

   毫无疑问,同伴群体对我们的行为施以巨大影响。不断涌现的大量新研究表明,积极的健康习惯——连同消极的健康习惯——都会通过社交在朋友圈中传播。这是同侪压力的一种隐秘形式:我们在无意识地模仿我们每天看到的行为。

   Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It's like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that's the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends.

   然而更难确定的是,专家和官僚们能在多大程度上成功挑选我们的同伴群体并将其行为引向道德方向。就像老师会把后排的捣蛋学生分开,让他们和表现较好的同学坐到一起。这种策略并未真正奏效。而这就是从外部进行调控的“社会治疗”的问题所在:和在学校一样,在现实世界中,我们坚持自己选择朋友。

来源:2012 英语一 Text 1

15.

Criticism of the Fast-fashion Industry

对快速时尚产业的批评

   In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.

   2006电影版《时尚女魔头》中,梅丽尔·斯特里普所饰演的米兰达·普瑞斯特利在斥责其平凡乏味的助手,原因是她认为高级时尚与己无关。普瑞斯特利解释了助手身上毛衫的深蓝色多年来是如何从时装展屈尊至百货店,再沦落到打折区的,而这个可怜女孩儿身上的衣服无疑淘自最后一站。

   This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would be described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.

   “时尚业自上而下"这一观念早已过时,或者说和《着装过度》一书(克莱恩历时三年方完成的对“快时尚”的控诉)所描绘的狂热世界完全相悖。最近大约十年,技术的进步使得大众品牌,如Zara,H&M,Uniqlo等,得以对时尚做出更快的反应、对需求进行更精准的预测。更快的周转意味着更少的库存浪费和更频繁的推新,即更多的利润。这些品牌鼓励那些有时尚意识的消费者将衣服视为一次性衣只用来穿一两水,虽然它们并非如此宣扬——并隔不了几周就更新一次衣橱。通过以极低的价格物提供流行时髦的衣物,这些品牌已经绑架了时尚周期,撼动了一个长久以来习惯于以“季"为步伐的产业。

   The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.

   当然,这一改变的受害者不仅限于设计师。H&M若要在其全球总共2300多家店内提供5.95美元的针织迷你裙,必须依靠低薪的海外劳动力以及造成自然资源过度使用的批量订单,并大量使用有害化学物质。

   Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.

   《着装过度》是与像迈克尔·普兰所著的《杂食者的困境》一样的消费者活跃分子(所著的)在时尚界的同类畅销书。“批量生产的服装如同快餐,虽填补了饥饿和需求,却无法持久,造成了浪费,”克某恩如是认为。她发现,美国人每年大约购入200亿件衣服——平均每人约64件——且无论他们捐出多少,这种过量都会造成浪费。

   Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.

   《着装过度》临结尾处,克莱恩推出了她的典范,一位名为萨拉·凯特·博蒙特的布鲁克林女性,她从2008年起就亲手制作自己所有的衣服——且做得很漂亮。但正如被克莱恩首次注意到,博蒙特花了几十年时光来完善自己的技能;她的做法不可能被轻松复制。

   Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

   尽管数家快时尚公司已经在努力控制他们对劳动力及环境的影响——包括推出绿色产品系列的H&M——克莱恩依然相信持久的变化只能来自顾客。她表现出可持续发展倡导者(无论是食品领域还是能源领域)共有的理想主义。虚荣是永恒的,只有在无法支付不可持续性购物时,人们才会开始可持续性购物。

来源:2013 英语一 Text 1

16.

Parenthood Sucks—or Does It?

做父母很糟糕还是?

   It's no surprise that Jennifer Senior's insightful, provocative magazine cover story, "I love My Children, I Hate My Life," is arousing much chatter - nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that "the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight."

   珍妮弗·西尼尔见解深刻、颇具挑衅性的杂志封面故事《我爱我的孩子,我讨厌我的生活》引发了热烈议论,这并不意外没有什么比“育儿绝非完全是成就自我、丰富生活的体验”这一提议更能引发人们的讨论了。西尼尔没有对“孩子带给父母的是幸福还是痛苦"做出定论,而是提议我们需要重新定义幸福:不应把它看成可用“即时即地的快乐"来衡量的东西,而应把感到幸福视为一种过去式状态。尽管日复一日的育儿经历艰难到摧残灵魂的地步,但“恰恰是当下打击我们情的事情日后会成为我们极度满足和快乐的源泉”,西尼尔写道。

   The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive - and newly single - mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual "Jennifer Aniston is pregnant" news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands.

   该杂志封面上的“魅力妈妈怀抱可爱宝宝"绝不是本周报刊亭上唯一的圣母圣子形象。还有关于“最近领养孩子的——且新近单身的——妈妈桑德拉·布洛克”的报道,以及“珍妮弗.安妮斯顿怀孕了”这一常见新闻。几乎每周都会有对至少一位明星妈妈或准妈妈的特别报道,她们在各报刊亭上笑迎读者。

   In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn't seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn't have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.

   在一个如此执着于颂扬生育的社会,“承认后悔生儿育女”就等同于“承认赞同残杀小猫”又有什么奇怪呢?所以,将“为人父母者的遗憾”同“无子女者的遗憾”相较似乎有失公平。不幸福的父母很少被激起对“自己是否本不该要孩子”的思考;但不幸福的无子女者会不断被“孩子是世界上唯一最重要的事情”这一信息所烦扰:显然他们的痛苦必定是他们生活中那些豁开的、孩子大小的窟窿所带来的直接后果。

   Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their "own" (read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake.

   《我们周刊》、《人物》等名人杂志中呈现出来的为人父母形象当然非常不现实,尤其当母亲是布洛克这样的单亲妈妈时更是如此。数项结论为“为人父母者不如无子女夫妻幸福”的研究表明,单亲父母最不幸福。这并没有什么可震惊的,想想看没有伴侣可依靠、独自一人养育孩子需要付出多大艰辛;但听听(杂志上)桑德拉·布兰妮怎么说,“独自”抚养孩子(解读:24小时有人帮忙)简直就是小菜一碟。

   It's hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it's interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren't in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting " the Rachel" might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston.

   难以想象有很多人会愚钝到仅仅因为瑞茜和安吉莉娜让“要孩子”看起来如此令人向往就决定身体力行:大多数成年人都明白,要孩子不像理发(那么简单)。但思考一下这个问题也很有趣:我们每周看到的“毫无压力、提升幸福感”的为人父母形象也许是在以某种细微的、潜意识的方式造成我们自己对实际体验的不满。就像我们中有少部分人曾希望剪一个“瑞秋"发型使自己看起来有那么一点像珍妮弗·安妮斯顿。

来源:2009 英语一 Text 1

17.

Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age

举止快乐,与年龄无关

   As adults,it seems that we are constantly pursuing happiness,often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art and for the most part they don’t need self-help books or therapy.instead,they look after their wellbeing instinctively,and usually more effectively than we do as grownups.Perhaps it’s time to learn a few lessons from them.

   作为成年人,我们似乎总在追求快乐,但结果喜忧参半。然而孩子们似乎已经将快乐变为了一种艺术,而且,在很大程度上,他们不需要借助指导书或什么疗法。相反,他们本能地找寻着自己的幸福,而且通常比我们成年人做得更有效果。也许,是时候向他们学习一些经验了。

   Express your emotions ——表达你的情感

   What does a child do when he’s sad?He cries.When he’s angry?He shouts.Scared?Probably a bit of both.As we grow up,we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don’t dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing.But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions,especially negative ones.that’s about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill.What we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately,and then-again.like children-move.

   当一个孩子伤心时他会做什么?他会哭。当他生气时呢?他会喊。害怕时呢?也许既会哭又会喊。当我们长大以后,我们学会了控制情绪,因此情绪变得可以管理,而且不再指挥我们的行为,这在很多情况下是一件好事。但是我们总把这件事做过头,最后以压抑情绪而告终,尤其是压抑负面的情绪。这虽然可以像将灰尘扫到地毯下一样有效,却能使我们生病。我们要做的是找到一种可以承认并表达自身感受的恰当的方式,然后像小时候那样将情绪发泄出来,最后继续前行。

   Be easily pleased——轻松愉快

   A couple of Christmases ago,my youngest stepdaughter,who was nine years old at the time ,got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas.It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed,and couldn’t stop talking about it. Too often we believe that a new job,bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content,but the reality is these things have very little lasting impact on our happiness levels. instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.

   几年前,我最小的继女得到了一件超人T恤作圣诞礼物,当时她九岁。这件礼物的价值不到5美元,但已经令她感到欣喜若狂了,她禁不住总是谈论这件衣服。通常我们总认为一份新工作、一个大房子或是一辆好车才会是那个能让我们最终心满意足的神奇“妙方",但现实是,这些东西在提高我们的快乐程度方面并不能产生什么持续性的影响。相反,对每天生活中的小事心怀感恩是提升幸福感的更好方式。

   Be silly——做点傻事

   Have you ever noticed how much children laugh?If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling,we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies increase good hormones like endorphins,improve blood flow to our hearts and even have a greater chance of fighting off enfection.All of which,of course,have a positive effect on happiness levels.

   你曾观察过孩子们笑得有多频繁吗?如果我们成年人也能放纵自己多一些傻气和笑声,我们就能减少身体的紧张荷尔蒙,增加如胺多酚这样的良性荷尔蒙,促进血液流向心脏,甚至还会增强抵抗感染的可能性。所有这些,当然会对提升快乐程度产生积极影响。

   Have fun——玩的开心

   The problem with being a grown up is that there’s an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work,mortgage payments,figuring out what to cook for dinner.But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it’s important that we schedule in time toenjoy the things we love.Those things might be social,sporting,creative or completely random(dancing aroud the living room,anyone?)——it doesn’t matter,so long as they’re enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects,such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you’re on a tight budget.

   作为成年人,我们的问题就是有一大堆严肃的事情需要处理——工作、按揭贷款、中午吃什么。但是作为成年人,我们同样享有控制自己每天做什么的奢侈权力,及时安排好享受我们所爱之物的时间很重要。这些事情可能有关交际、运动、创造,或者完全就是随意的(在客厅里跳舞,有人是这样吗?)——这些都不重要,只要它们能让你享受其中且不太可能有副作用(比如饮酒过量或是在预算紧张时乱花钱)就可以。

   Don't overthink it——别想太多了

   Having said all of the above,it’s important to add that we shouldn’t try too hard to be happy.Scientists tell us this can backfire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said:“Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness.” And in that,once more,we need to look to the example of our children,to whomhappiness is not a goal but a natural by product of the way they live.

   说了这么多,还有一点很重要,那就是我们不应该强求快乐。科学家告诉我们这样做会适得其反,事实上对我们的幸福感产生消极影响。正如中国哲学家庄子所说:“至乐无乐。”而且,在这一点上,我们需要再次以孩子们为榜样,对他们来说,快乐不是一个目标,而是他们的生活方式自然而然产生的副产品。

来源:2016 英语二 Text 2

18.

In Favor of a Gap Year

支持间隔年

   Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn't academic.

   如今,要求学生直接上大学的社会压力普遍存在,快速变化的世界对学生的期望也越来越高,往往导致学生们完全忽视了修整一年再上大学(间隔年)的可能性。毕竟,如果你认识的其他人都在秋天去上大学,推迟一年再去上学的选择似乎有些荒谬,不是吗?另外,在上了12年学以后花一年时间去做一些与学习无关的事情也会让人感觉不自然。

   But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated "race to the finish line," whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits—in fact, it probably enhances it.

   尽管事实可能如此,但并不足以构成谴责间隔年的正当理由。大家心里总是萦绕着这么一种恐惧感,那就是害怕在社会里的这场永恒存在的“赛跑"中落后于他人,无论这场比赛的终点是进入研究生院、医学院还是获得赚钱的工作。尽管存在普遍误解,间隔年并不是人们追求学术成功的阻碍一一事实上,它可能还会促进人们在这方面取得成功。

   Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes—all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.

   美国和澳大利亚学者所进行的研究指出,推迟一年入学的学生通常要比其他学生更充分地做好上大学的准备,并能在大学里表现得更为出色。选择间隔年并没有拖学生们的后腿,恰恰相反,这样做反而能帮助他们为变得独立、承担新职责和适应新环境做好了准备(而这些通常是大一新生最难处理的问题)。有了间隔年的经历,学生们可以在适应大学生活和投入全新环境等方面减少所受冲击,能更容易地将注意力集中在学习和参与活动上,而非解决不适应问题上。

   If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn't surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It's not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.

   如果你还不相信延迟一年上大学的好处,那么就考虑下它对你未来学术选择的经济影响吧!国家教育统计中心的数据显示,将近80%的大学生最后至少换过一次专业。高中阶段基石出的强制课程让学生们对未来大学里等待他们的无限学术可能性知之甚少,如果考虑到这一点,这样的调查结果就不足为奇了。许多学生在申请大学时选择了一个专业,但在上了专业课后,又换成了别的专业。虽然这并非是件坏事,但取决于学校,因为如果太晚换专业,有的学生需要补修学分,因此需要在竞争中付出更高的代价。例如,对于就读波士顿学院的学生而言,如果要转到护理专业,他们需要再多读一年。而一开始用延迟一年入学的方式来搞清楚状况有助于减轻日后要面临的压力并节省金钱。

来源:2017 英语二 Text 3

19.

Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress

性别不平等:压力之下的女性

   While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. “Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men,” according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York's Veteran's Administration Hospital.

   尽管在现代生活的某些领域里,女性仍能赶上男性,但在至少一个不受欢迎的领域,女性似乎遥遥领先。纽约的退伍军管理医院精神科首席医生Yehuda博士说道,和男性相比,女性面对压力时,更容易受到影响,导致抑郁和紧张。

   Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries (the female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.

   对于动物和人类的研究都显示出性激素会在某种程度去影响面对压力的反应,导致在同样的条件下,女性产生更多的致病化学物质。在几项研究中,当受到压力的雌鼠的卵巢(雌性的生殖器官)被拿掉后,它们的化学反应变得和那些雄性的一样了。

   Adding to a woman's increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased “opportunities” for stress. “It's not necessarily that women don't cope as well. It's just that they have so much more to cope with,” says Dr. Yehuda. “Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men's,” she observes, “it's just that they're dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.”

   对于女性来说,除了产生更多的导致压力的化学物质外,她们产生压力的“机会”也更多。“并不是女性要处理的事情太少,而是她们有更多的事情要处理。”Yehuda博士说道。“她们对于压力的承受能力有时候甚至比男性的还大”,她观察到,“她们只是需要处理的事情太多,看起来会更容易精疲力尽。”

   Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. “I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating.”

   Yehuda博士注意到了另一个男女之间的不同点。“我认为,女性通常要做的事是慢性的,重复的。而男人去战场,承受的是格斗的压力。男性面临的更多的是随意的身体上的暴力。女性面对的人与人之间的暴力是在家庭环境中的。不幸的是,她们与父母还有其他的家庭成员之间不是能够一次性解决的问题。这种长期的关系的磨合是更有破坏性的。

   Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college. “I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better.” Later, her marriage ended and she became a single mother. “It's the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.”

Adeline Alvarez 18岁结婚并生了个儿子,但她决定完成大学学业。“我尽了很大的努力拿到大学学位,因为我在实际生活中有很多的挫折,而这就是我的逃避,去学校,争取上游,做到更好。”不久后,她离了婚变成一个单亲母亲。“除了照顾一个十几岁的孩子,还要工作,付房租,养车,还债是最难的事情了。我的生活就是不停的支付自己的账单。”

   Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez's experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.

   不是每个人经历着和Alvarez describes一样的长期的压力,但是大多数女性都在处理着太多的责任,很少得到喘息,从而感到了压力。Alvarez的经历证明了当压力威胁你的健康和正常和正常生理功能之前解压是非常重要的。

来源:2008 英语一 Text 1

20.

Ambition

雄心

   If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition — wealth, distinction, control over one's destiny — must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. In an odd way, however, it is the educated who have claimed to have give up on ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambition — if not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escaped — with the educated themselves riding on them.

   个人的雄心如果能被正确看待的话,那么它的回报——财富、声誉、对命运的掌握——则应该被认为值得为之付出牺牲。如果雄心的传统具有生命力,那么它就应该受到广泛的推崇,尤其应该受到那些自身得到他人羡慕的人们的高度重视,当然那些接受过良好教育的人也应包括在内。然而,恰恰是那些受过良好教育的人却不可思议地声称他们已经放弃了雄心壮志这一理想。奇怪的是他们已经从雄心壮志中获益颇多了——如果不是他们自己的雄心,那么就是他们父母的和祖父母的。这其中有着浓厚的虚伪色彩,恰如马跑后再关上马厩的门那样,而受过良好教育的人自己正骑在那些马背上。

   Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs — The locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, "Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious."

   当然,现在人们对成功及其标志的兴趣似乎并未比从前减弱,避暑别墅,欧洲旅行、宝马车——它们的位置、地名和商标可能会改变,但现在对这些东西的需求似乎并未比一二十年前减少。现在的情况是人们不能像以前那样轻易地、公开地坦陈自己的梦想,惟恐别人认为自己爱出风头、贪婪、庸俗不堪。相反我们目睹了比以前任何时候都多的虚伪景观:美国物欲主义批评家在南安普顿拥有一幢避暑别墅;激进的出版商到三星级宾馆就餐;倡导终生参与民主制的新闻记者却把自己的子女送进私立学校。对于这样的人,还有那些也许不太出色的人而言,“不惜一切代价获得成功,但避免让他人看出雄心勃勃”是对他们最好的诠释。

   The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive. As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed. Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

   对雄心的攻击非常之多,出自各种不同的角度;公开为之辩解的则少之又少,虽不能说他们是完全没有吸引力的,但却未能给人们留下深刻印象。因此,在美国,作为一种健康的冲动,一种应该令人称羡并扎根于青年人心灵的品质的雄心,它所得到的支持也许比以往任何时期都低。但这并不意味着雄心已经穷途末路,人们不再感觉到它对人们的激励了,只是人们不再公开地以它为荣,更不愿公开地坦白了。当然这样就带来了很多不良后果,其中的一些后果就是雄心被赶入地下,或暗藏于胸。于是情况就成了这样:左边是愤怒的批评家,右边是愚蠢的支持者,而居中的通常是大多数认真而努力追求成功的人。

来源:2000 英语一 Text 5

21.

The Art of Unhappiness

《悲情艺术》节选

Many things make people think artists are weird. But the weirdest may be this: artists’ only job is to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad.

   许多事情使人们认为艺术家是怪异的。但最怪异的或许是这件:艺术家唯一的工作就是探究情感,然而他们却选择聚焦于那些令人感觉糟糕的情感。

   This wasn’t always so. The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited for expressing joy. But somewhere from the 19th century onward, more artists began seeing happiness as meaningless, phony or, worst of all, boring, as we went from Wordsworth’s daffodils to Baudelaire’s flowers of evil.

   情况并非总是如此。最早期的艺术形式,如绘画和音乐,是最适合表达喜悦的。但大约从19世纪以来,更多的艺术家开始把幸福看作是无趣的、虚幻的、甚至是使人厌烦的情感,正如我们从华兹华斯的《水仙花》到波德莱尔的《恶之花》所体验到的一样。

   You could argue that art became more skeptical of happiness because modern times have seen so much misery. But it’s not as if earlier times didn’t know perpetual war, disaster and the massacre of innocents. The reason, in fact, may be just the opposite: there is too much damn happiness in the world today.

   你可能会辩称艺术越来越质疑幸福是因为现代社会经历了如此多的苦难。但早期社会又不是没有经历过连年战乱、天灾人祸和屠杀无辜。事实上,原因可能恰恰相反:当今世界有太多令人作呕的幸福。

   After all, what is the one modern form of expression almost completely dedicated to depicting happiness? Advertising. The rise of anti-happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass media, and with it, a commercial culture in which happiness is not just an ideal but an ideology.

   别忘了,几乎完全致力于描绘幸福的唯一现代表达形式是什么?是广告。反幸福艺术的兴起几乎完全与大众传媒同步,与之相伴而生的还有一种商业文化,在这种文化中,幸福不仅是一种理想,更是一种意识形态。

   People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass communication and literacy, the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in danger and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this, they did not exactly need their art to be a bummer too.

   早期时代的人们被苦难提示信息团团包围。他们工作到筋疲力尽,生活几乎没有任何保障,且年纪轻便会逝去。在西方,在大众传播和教育普及之前,最强有力的大众传媒是教堂,在这里,信徒们会被提醒:他们的灵魂处于危险之中,他们有朝一日将沦为腐尸被蠕虫啮噬。鉴于这一切,他们根本不需要艺术也成为一件恼人之物。

   Today the messages the average Westerner is surrounded with are not religious but commercial, and forever happy. Fast-food eaters, news anchors, text messengers, all smiling, smiling, smiling. Our magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages have an agenda -- to lure us to open our wallets -- they make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. “Celebrate!” commanded the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex, before we found out it could increase the risk of heart attacks.

   如今围绕普通西方人的信息不是宗教的,而是商业的,且永远都是幸福的。快餐食客、新闻主播、发信者,都在微笑、微笑、微笑。我们的杂志以明星和幸福家庭为特色。由于这信息有着特定的目的——诱使我们打开钱包——它们使得“幸福"这一概念看起来不可靠。“欢庆吧!”关节炎药西乐葆的广告这样鼓动道,之后我们才发现,它会增加心脏病的发病风险。

   But what we forget -- what our economy depends on us forgetting -- is that happiness is more than pleasure without pain. The things that bring the greatest joy carry the greatest potential for loss and disappointment. Today, surrounded by promises of easy happiness, we need art to tell us, as religion once did, Memento mori: remember that you will die, that everything ends, and that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it. It’s a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air.

   但是我们所忘记的——我们的经济依赖的是我们的忘记——是:幸福并非是没有痛苦的快乐。带来最大欢乐的东西很可能带来最大的损失和失望。如今,周围到处都是对唾手可得的幸福的承诺,我们需要艺术来告诫我们,正如宗教曾经告诉我们,人终有一死,万事皆会结束,幸福不在于否定这一点而在、于忍受它。这是甚至比丁香烟还要苦涩的启示,但不知何故,却带来了一缕清新的空气。

来源:2006 英语一 Text 4

完!😄

向坚持到终点的朋友致以最最最崇高的敬意 👍🙏👋

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